3DSSPP: References


This is the list of references from Chapter 6 of Occupational Biomechanics, 3rd Edition by Chaffin, Andersson, and Martin, 1999 (published by J. Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Ave., New York, NY 10158).

In addition, a partial list of references from related studies performed in the University of Michigan’s Center for Ergonomics is provided at the following links. More references will be added in the future.

Additional References: Page 1 | Page 2

Occupational Biomechanics – Chapter 6

Abrahams, M., “Mechanical Properties of Tendon In-Vitro,” Med. Biol. Eng., 5, 433-443 (1967).

Amis, A. A., D. Dowson, and V. Wright, “Analysis of Elbow Forces Due to High-Speed Forearm Movements,” J. Biomech., 13, 825-831 (1980).

An, K. N., B. M. Kwak, E. Y. Chao, and B. F. Morrey, “Determination of Muscle and Joint Forces: A New Technique to Solve the Indeterminate Problem,” J. Biomech., 106, 364-367 (1984).

An, K. N., E. Y. Chao, W. P. Cooney, R. L. Linscheid, “Normative Model of Human Hand for Biomechanical Analysis,” J. Biomechanics, 12, 775-788 (1979).

An, K. N., Y. Ueba, W. P. Cooney III, R. L. Linscheid, “Tendon Excursion and Moment Arm of Index Finger Muscles,” J. Biomechanics, 16(6), 419-425 (1983).

Anderson, C. K., D. B. Chaffin, and G. D. Herrin, “A Study of Lumbosacral Orientation under Varied Static Loads,” Spine, 11(5), 456-462 (1986).

Andersson, G. B. and A. B. Schultz, “Transmission of Moments Across the Elbow Joint and the Lumbar Spine,” J. Biomech., 12, 747-755 (1979).

Andersson, G. B. J., R. Ortengren, and A. Nachemson, “Studies of Back Loads in Fixed Spinal Postures and in Lifting,” in C. G. Drury, Ed., Safety in Manual Materials Handling, USDHEW (NIOSH) 78-185, Cincinnati, 1978, pp. 26-33.

Andres, R. O. and D. B. Chaffin, “Ergonomic Analysis of Slip-Resistance Measurement Devices,” Ergonomics, 28(7), 1065-1079 (1985).

Armstrong, J. R., Lumbar Disc Lesions, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1965.

Armstrong, T. J. and B. A. Silverstein, “Upper-Extremity Pain in the Workplace-Role of Usage in Causality,” in Clinical Concepts in the Regional Musculoskeletal Injuries in Industry, N. Hadler, Ed., Grune and Stratton, 1987, pp. 333-354.

Armstrong, T. J. and D. B. Chaffin, “An Investigation of the Relationship between Displacements of the Finger and Wrist Joints and the Extrinsic Finger Flexor Tendons,” J. Biomech., 11, 119-128 (1978).

Armstrong, T. J., “Circulatory and Local Muscle Responses to Static Manual Work,” unpublished Ph.D. thesis (Industrial Health), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1976.

Armstrong, T. J., L. J. Fine, S. A. Goldstein, Y. R. Lifshitz, and B. A. Silverstein, “Ergonomics Considerations in Hand and Wrist Tendinitis,” J. Hand Surgery, 12A(5), 830-837 (1987).

Armstrong, T. J., R. G. Radwin, D. J. Hansen, and K. W. Kennedy, “Repetitive Trauma Disorders: Job Evaluation and Design,” Human Factors, 28(3), 325-336 (1986).

Asmussen, E. and E. Poulson, “On the Role of the Intra-Abdominal Pressure in Relieving the Back,” Communications of Danish Nat’l Assoc. Infant. Paralysis, 28, 1-11 (1968).

Aspden, R. M., “Intra-abdominal Pressure and Its Role in Spinal Mechanics,” Clin. Biomech., 2, 168-174 (1987).

Ayoub, M. M. and J. W. McDaniel, “Effects of Operator Stance on Pushing and Pulling,” AIIE Trans., 6, 185-195 (1974).

Bartelink, D. L., “The Role of Abdominal Pressure in Relieving the Pressure on the Lumbar Intervertebral Discs,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., 39B, 718-725 (1957).

Bean, J. C., D. B. Chaffin, and A. B. Schultz, “Biomechanical Model Calculation of Muscle Contraction Forces: A Double Linear Programming Method,” J. Biomech., 21(1), 59-66 (1988).

Bodén, A. and K. Öberg, “Torque Resistance of the Passive Tissues of the Trunk at Axial Rotation,” Applied Ergonomics, 29(2), 111-118 (1998).

Brinckmann, P., N. Johannleweling, D. Hilweg, and M. Biggeman, “Fatigue Fracture of Human Lumbar Vertebrae,” Clin. Biomech., 2, 94-96 (1987).

Buchholz, B. and T. J. Armstrong, “A Kinematic Model of the Human Hand to Evaluate its Prehensile Capabilities,” J. Biomechanics, 25(2), 149-162 (1992).

Burggraaf, J. D., An Isometric Biomechanical Model for Sagittal Plane Leg Extension, unpublished M.S. thesis (Industrial Engineering), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1972.

Bush-Joseph, C., O. Schipplein, G. B. J. Andersson, and T. P. Andriacchi, “Influence of Dynamic Factors on the Lumbar Spine Moment in Lifting,” Ergonomics, 31(2), 211-216 (1988).

Chaffin, D. B., “Biomechanical Modeling for Simulation of 3D Static Human Exertions,” Computer Applications in Ergonomics, Occupational Safety and Health, Elsevier Publishers, B.V., (1992).

Chaffin, D. B. “Development of Computerized Human Static Strength Simulation Model for Job Design,” Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, 7(4), 305-322 (1997).

Chaffin, D. B. and M. Erig, “Three-Dimensional Biomechanical Static Strength Prediction Model Sensitivity to Postural and Anthropometric Inaccuracies,” IIE Transactions, 23(3), 215-227 (1991).

Chaffin, D. B. and T. J. Armstrong, “Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Selected Personal Attributes,” J. Occup. Med., 21(7), 481-486 (1979).

Chaffin, D. B., “A Computerized Biomechanical Model: Development and Use in Studying Gross Body Actions,” J. Biomech., 2, 429-441 (1969).

Chaffin, D. B., “On the Validity of Biomechanical Models of the Low Back for Weight Lifting Analysis,” ASME Proceedings, 75-WA-Bio-l, Amer. Soc. of Mech. Eng., New York, 1975.

Chaffin, D. B., A. Freivalds, and S. M. Evans, “On the Validity of an Isometric Biomechanical Model of Worker Strengths,” IIE Transactions, 19(3), 280-288 (1987).

Chaffin, D. B., J. C. Woldstad, and A. Trujillo, “Floor/Shoe Slip Resistance Measurement,” Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J., 53(5), 283-289 (1992).

Chaffin, D. B., M. S. Redfern, M. Erig, and S. A. Goldstein, “Lumbar Muscle Size and Location Measurements from CT Scans of 96 Older Women,” Clin. Biomech., 5(1), 9-16 (1990).

Chaffin, D. B., R. Andres, and A. Garg, “Volitional Postures during Maximal PushPull Exertions in the Sagittal Plane,” Human Factors, 25(5), 541-550 (1983).

Chaffin, D. B., R. K. Schultz, and R. G. Snyder, A Prediction Model of Human Volitional Mobility, SAE Paper 720002, Soc. of Auto. Eng., Detroit, 1972.

Chao, E., J. Opgrande, and F. Axmear, “Three-Dimensional Force Analysis of Finger Joints in Selected Isometric Hand Functions,” J. Biomechanics, 9, 387-396 (1976).

Chao, E. Y., K. N. An, “Determination of Internal Forces in Human Hand,” J. Engng. Mech. Div., 255-272 (1978).

Clarke, H. H., Muscle Strength and Endurance in Man, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1966, pp. 39-51.

Crowninshield, R. D. and R. A. Brand, “A Physiologically Based Criterion of Muscle Force Prediction in Locomotion,” J. Biomech., 14(11), 793-801, 1981.

Crowninshield, R. D., “Use of Optimization Techniques to Predict Muscle Forces,” J. of Biomech. Eng., 100, 88-92 (1978).

Danz, M. E. and M. M. Ayoub, “The Effects of Speed, Frequency, and Load on Measured Hand Forces for a Floor to Knuckle Lifting Task,” Ergonomics 35(7/8), 833-843 (1992).

Davis, P. R. and D. A. Stubbs, “Force Limits in Manual Work,” Applied Ergonomics, 9, 33-38 (1978).

DeLooze, M. P., I. Kingmas, W. Thunnissen, M. J. vanWijk, and H. M. Toussaint, “The Evaluation of a Practical Biomechanical Model Estimating Lumbar Moments in Occupational Activities,” Ergonomics, 38(9), 1495-1502 (1994).

Dempster, W. T., Space Requirements of the Seated Operator, WADC-TR-55-159, Aerospace Med. Res. Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, 1955.

Dennerlein, J. T., “Finger Flexor Tendon Forces and the Control of Finger Movements during a Keystroke,” Ph.D. Thesis. University of California, Berkeley.1996.

Dennerlein, J. T., E. Diao, C. D. Mote, D. Rempel, “The Tensions of the Flexor Digitorum Superficialis are Higher than a Current Model Predicts,” J. Biomechanics. In press. 1998.

Dolan, P., A. F. Mannion, and M. A. Adams, “Passive Tissues Help the Back Muscles to Generate Extensor Moments during Lifting,” J. Biomechanics, 27(8), 1077-1085 (1994).

El-Bassoussi, M. M., A Biomechanical Dynamic Model for Lifting in the Sagittal Plane, unpublished Ph.D. thesis (Industrial Engineering), Texas Technological University, Lubbock, 1974.

Evans, F. G. and H. R. Lissner, “Studies on the Energy Absorbing Capacity of Human Lumbar Intervertebral Discs,” Proceedings of the Seventh Stapp Car Crash Conference, Springfield, Ill., 1965.

Farfan, H. F. and S. Gracovetsky, “The Nature of Instability,” Spine, 9(7), 714-719 (1984).

Farfan, H. F., “Muscular Mechanism of the Lumbar Spine and the Position of Power and Efficiency,” Ortho. Clinics N. America, 6(1), 135-144 (1975).

Farfan, H., Mechanical Disorders of the Low Back, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1973.

Fathallah, F. A., W. S. Marras, and M. Parnianpour, “An Assessment of Complex Spinal Loads During Dynamic Lifting Tasks,” Spine, 23(6), 706-716 (1998).

Fick, R., Handbook der Anatomic und Mechanik der Gelenke, Von Gustav Fisher, Jena, Germany, 1904.

Fiorini, G. T. and D. McCommond, “Forces on the Lumbo-Vertebral Facets,” Annals of Biomedical Eng., 4(4), 354-363 (1976).

Fisher, B. O., Analysis of Spinal Stresses During Lifting, unpublished M.S. thesis (Industrial Engineering), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1967.

Freivalds, A., D. B. Chaffin, A. Garg, and K. S. Lee, “A Dynamic Biomechanical Evaluation of Lifting Maximum Acceptable Loads,” J. Biomech., 17(4), 251-262 (1984).

Fung, Y. C., Biomechanics, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1981, pp. 406-412.

Garg, A. and D. B. Chaffin, “A Biomechanic Computerized Simulation of Human Strength,” AIIE Trans., March, 1-15 (1975).

Garg, A., D. B. Chaffin, and A. Freivalds, “Biomechanical Stresses from Manual Load Lifting,” IIE Trans., 14, 272-280 (1982).

Genaidy, A. M., S. M. Waly, T. M. Khalil, and J. Hidalgo, “Spinal Compression Tolerance Limits for the Design of Manual Material Handling Operations in the Workplace,” Ergonomics, 36(4), 415-434 (1993).

Goldstein, S. A., T. J. Armstrong, D. B. Chaffin, and L. S. Matthews, “Analysis of Cumulative Strain in Tendons and Tendon Sheaths,” J. Biomech., 20(1), 1-6 (1987).

Gracovetsky, S. The Spinal Engine, Springer-Verlag Wien, New York, 1988.

Granata, K. P. and W. S. Marras, “The Influence of Trunk Muscle Coactivity on Dynamic Spinal Loads,” Spine, 20(8), 913-919 (1995).

Grönqvist, R., M. Hirvonen, and A. Tuusa, “Slipperiness of the Shoe Floor Interface: Comparison of Objective and Subjective Assessments,” Applied Ergonomics, 24(4), 258-262 (1993).

Hadler, N. M., “Industrial Rheumatology,” Arthritis and Rhematism, 20(4), 1019-1025 (1977).

Harding, D.C., K. D. Brandt, B. M. Hillberry, “Finger Joint Force Minimization in Pianists using Optimization Techniques,” J. Biomechanics. 26 (12), 1403-1412 (1993).

Harris, G. W. and S. R. Shaw, “Slip Resistance of Floors: Users’ Opinions, Tortus Instrument Readings and Roughness Measurement,” J. Occup. Accidents, 9, 287-298 (1988).

Hughes, R. E. and D. B. Chaffin, “Shear Force Considerations in Predicting Torso Muscle Antagonism,” Proceedings of the American Society of Biomechanics, Davis, California, 1987.

Hughes, R. E. and D. B. Chaffin, “The Effect of Strict Muscle Stress Limits on Abdominal Muscle Force Predictions for Combined Torsion and Extension Loadings,” J. Biomechanics, 28(5), 527-533 (1995).

Inglis, A. E., L. R. Straub, and C. S. Williams, “Median Neuropathy in the Wrist,” Clin. Orthop., 83, 48-54 (1972).

Jäger, M. “Biomechanisches Modell des Menschen zue Analyse und Beurteilung der Belastung der Wirbelsaule bei der Handhabung von Lasten,” VDI Verlage, Reihe 17 Boeechnik Nr. 33 (1987).

Kraus, H., G. H. Robertson, and H. F. Farfan, On the Mechanics of Weight Lifting, Proceedings of New England Bioengineering Conference, University of Vermont, 1973.

Kroemer, K. H. E. and D. E. Robinson, Horizontal Static Forces Exerted by Men Standing in Common Working Postures on Surfaces of Various Tractions, AMRL-TR-70-114, Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, 1971.

Kromodihardjo, S. and A. Mital, “Kinetic Analysis of Manual Lifting Activities: Part I-Development of a Three-Dimensional Computer Model,” Int. J. Ind. Ergonomics, 1, 77-90 (1986).

Krusen, F., C. M. Ellwood, and F. J. Kottle, Handbook of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Saunders, Philadelphia, 1965.

Kulak, R. F., T. B. Belytschko, A. B. Schultz, and J. O. Galante, “Nonlinear Behavior of the Human Intervertebral Disc Under Axial Load,” J. Biomech., 9, 377-386 (1976).

Kumar, S., “Moment Arms of Spinal Musculature Determined from CT Scans,” Clin. Biomech., 3, 137-144 (1988).

Kumar, S., “The Effect of Sustained Spinal Load on Intra-abdominal Pressure and EMG Characteristics of Trunk Muscles,” Ergonomics, 40(12), 1312-1334 (1997).

Kumar, S., Y. Narayan, and C. Bacchus, “Symmetric and Asymmetric Two-Handed Pull-Push Strength of Young Adults,” Human Factors, 37(4), 854-865 (1995).

Kurowski, P. and A. Kubo, “The Relationship of Degeneration of the Intervertebral Disc to Mechanical Loading Conditions on Lumbar Vertebrae, Spine, 11(7), 726-731 (1986).

Landjerit, B., B. Maton, and G. Peres, “In Vivo Muscular Force Analysis During the Isometric Flexion on a Monkey’s Elbow,” J. Biomech., 21(7), 577-584 (1988).

Landsmeer, J. M. F., “Power Grip and Precision Handling,” Ann. Rheum. Dis., 21, 164-170 (1962).

Lanier, R. R., “Presacral Vertebrae of White and Negro Males,” Am. J. Phys. Med., 25, 343-420 (1939).

Lavender, S. A., Y-H. Tsuang, A. Hafezi, G. B. J. Andersson, D. B. Chaffin, and R. E. Hughes, “Coactivation of the Trunk Muscles during Asymmetric Loading of the Torso,” Human Factors, 34(2), 239-247, (1992).

Lee, K. S., Biomechanical Modeling of Cart Pushing and Pulling, unpublished Ph.D. thesis (Industrial and Operational Engineering), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1982.

Lee, K. S., D. B. Chaffin, A. M. Waiker, and M. K. Chung, “Lower Back Muscle Forces in Pushing and Pulling,” Ergonomics, 32(12), 1551-1563 (1989).

Lee, K. S., D. B. Chaffin, and C. Parks, “A Study of Slip Potential during Cart Pushing and Pulling,” IIE Transactions, 24(5), 139-146 (1992).

LeVeau, B., Biomechanics of Human Motion, 2nd ed., Saunders, Philadelphia, 1977, pp. 150-156.

MacConaill, M. A. and J. V. Basmajian, Muscles and Movements, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1969, pp. 198-207.

MacIntosh, J. E. and N. Bodguk, “The Biomechanics of the Lumbar Multifidus,” Clin. Biomech., 1, 205-213 (1986).

Macintosh, J. E., N. Bogduk, and M. J. Pearcy, “The Effects of Flexion on the Geometry and Actions of the Lumbar Erector Spinae,” Spine, 18(7), 884-893 (1993).

Marras, W. S. and G. A. Mirka, “Intra-abdominal Pressure during Trunk Extension Motions,” Clin. Biomech., 11(5), 267-274 (1996).

Marras, W. S. and K. P. Granata, “A Biomechanical Assessment and Model of Axial Twisting in the Thoracolumbar Spine,” Spine, 20(13), 1440-1451 (1995).

Marras, W. S., “Trunk Motion During Lifting: Temporal Relations among Loading Factors,” Int. J. Ind. Ergonomics, 1, 159-167 (1987).

Marras, W. S., R. L. Joynt, and A. I. King, “The Force-Velocity Relation and Intraabdominal Pressure During Lifting Activities,” Ergonomics, 28(3), 603-613 (1985).

Martin, J. B. and D. B. Chaffin, “Biomechanical Computerized Simulation of Human Strength in Sagittal Plane Activities,” AIIE Trans., 4(1), 19-28 (1972).

McCully, K. K. and J. A. Faulkner, “Characteristics of Lengthening Contractions Associated with Injury to Skeletal Muscle Fibers,” J. Applied Physiol., 61(1), 293-299 (1986).

McGill, S. M. and R. W. Norman, “Effects of an anatomically detailed erector spinae model of L4/L5 disc compression and shear,” J. Biomech., 20, 591-600 (1987).

McGill, S. M. and R. W. Norman, “Dynamically and Statically Determined Low Back Moments During Lifting,” J. Biomech., 18(12), 877-885 (1985).

McGill, S. M. and R. W. Norman, “Partitioning of the L4-L5 Dynamic Moment into Disc, Ligamentous, and Muscular Components During Lifting,” Spine, 11(7), 665-678 (1986).

McGill, S. M. and R. W. Norman, “Reassessment of the Role of Intra-Abdominal Pressure in Spinal Compression,” Ergonomics, 30(11), 1565-1588 (1987).

McGill, S. M., “A Myoelectrically Based Dynamic Three-Dimensional Model to Predict Loads on Lumbar Spine Tissues during Lateral Bending,” J. Biomechanics, 25(4), 395-414 (1992).

McGill, S. M., M. T. Sharratt, and J. P. Seguin, “Loads on Spinal Tissues during Simultaneous Lifting and Ventilatory Challenge,” Ergonomics, 38(9), 1772-1792 (1995).

McGill, S. M., N. Patt, and R. W. Norman, “Measurement of the Trunk Musculature of Active Males Using CT Scan Radiography Implications for Force and Moment Generating Capacity about the L4/L5 Joint,” J. Biomech., 21(4), 329-341 (1988).

McNally, D. B. and R. G. C. Arridge, “An Analytical Model of Intervertebral Disc Mechanics,”J. Biomechanics, 28(1), 53-68 (1995).

Miller, D. I. and R. C. Nelson, Biomechanics of Sport, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1976, pp. 31-33 and 235-242.

Miller, J. A. A., K. A. Haderspeck, and A. B. Schultz, “Posterior Element Loads in Lumbar Motion Segments,” Spine, 8(3), 331-337 (1983).

Moga, P. J., M. Erig, D. B. Chaffin, and M. A. Nussbaum, “Torso Muscle Moment Arms at Intervertebral Levels T10 through L5 from CT Scans on Eleven Male and Eight Female Subjects,” Spine 18(15), 2305-2309 (1993).

Morris, J. M., D. B. Lucas, and B. Bressler, “Role of the Trunk in Stability of the Spine,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., 43A, 327-351 (1961).

Myers, E. R. and S. E. Wilson, “Biomechanics of Osteoporosis and Vertebral Fracture,” Spine, 22(24S), 25S-31S, (1997).

Myung, R., and J. L. Smith, “The Effect of Load Carrying and Floor Contaminants on Slip and Fall Parameters,” Ergonomics, 40(2), 235-246 (1997).

Nachemson, A. and G. Elfstrom, “Intravital Dynamic Pressure Measurements in Lumbar Disc,” Scand. J. Rehab. Med. (Supp. 1), 1-39 (1970).

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, A Work Practices Guide for Manual Lifting, Tech. Report No. 81-122, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services (NIOSH), Cincinnati, OH, 1981.

Nemeth, G. and H. Ohlsen, “Moment Arm Lengths of Trunk Muscles to the Lumbosacral Joint Obtained In Vivo with Computed Tomography,” Spine, 11(2), 158-160 (1986).

Nussbaum, M. A. and D. B. Chaffin, “Development and Evaluation of a Scalable and Deformable Geometric Model of the Human Torso,” Clin. Biomech. 11(1) (1996).

Nussbaum, M. A., D. B. Chaffin, and C. J. Rechtien, “Muscle Lines-of-Action Affect Predicted Forces in Optimization-Based Spine Muscle Modeling,” J. Biomechanics, 28(4), 401-409 (1995).

Nussbaum, M. A., D. B. Chaffin, and G. Baker, “Biomechanical Analysis of Material Handling Manipulators in Short Distance Transfers of Moderate Mass Objects. Part II: Joint Strength, Spine Forces, and Muscular Antagonism,” Ergonomics (submitted) 1998.”

Ohtsuki, T., “Inhibition of Individual Fingers During Grip Strength Exertion,” Ergonomics, 24(1), 21-36 (1981).

Park, K. S. and D. B. Chaffin, “A Biomechanical Evaluation of Two Methods of Manual Load Lifting,” AIIE Trans., 6(2), 105-113 (1974).

Perey, O., “Fractures of the Vertebral Endplate in the Lumbar Spine,” Acta Ortho. Scand., Supp. 25, 1957.

Plagenhoef, S., Patterns of Human Motion, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1971, pp. 48-55.

Pope, M. H., G. B. J. Andersson, H. Broman, M. Svensson, and C. Zetterberg, “Electromyographic Studies of the Lumbar Trunk Musculature During the Development of Axial Torques,” J. Orth. Res., 4, 288-297 (1986).

Putz-Anderson, V., Cumulative Trauma Disorders: A Manual for Musculoskeletal Diseases of the Upper Limbs, Taylor & Francis, New York, 1988.

Raschke, U. and D. B. Chaffin, “Trunk and Hip Muscle Recruitment in Response to External Anterior Lumbosacral Shear and Moment Loads,” Clin. Biomech., 11(3), 145-152 (1996).

Read, J. G., Costigan, P. A. and Comrie, W., “Prediction of trunk muscle areas and moment arms by use of anthropometric measures,” Spine, 12, 273-5, (1987).

Redfern, M. S. and B. Bidanda, “Slip Resistance of the Shoe/Floor Interface under Biomechanically-relevant Conditions,” Ergonomics, 37(3), 511-524 (1994).

Resnick, M. L. and D. B. Chaffin, “An Ergonomic Evaluation of Handle Height and Load in Maximal and Submaximal Cart Pushing,” Applied Ergonomics, 26(3), 173-178 (1995).

Romick-Allen, R. and A. B. Schultz, “Biomechanics of Reactions to Impending Falls,” J. Biomech., 21(7), 591-600 (1988).

Rowe, L. M., “Low Back Disabilities in Industry: Updated Position,” J. Occup. Med., 13, 476-483 (1971).

Schanne, F. A., A Three-Dimensional Hand Force Capability Model for the Seated Operator, unpublished Ph.D. thesis (Industrial Engineering), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1972.

Schultz, A. B. and B. J. G. Andersson, “Analysis of Loads on the Lumbar Spine,” Spine, 6(1), 76-82, 1981.

Schultz, A. B., B. J. G. Andersson, R. Ortengren, K. Haderspeek, and A. Nachemson, “Loads on the Lumbar Spine,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., 64-A, 713-720 (1982).

Schultz, A. B., D. N. Warwick, M. H. Berkson, and A. L. Nachemson, “Mechanical Properties of Human Lumbar Spine Motion Segments,” J. Biomech. Eng. Trans., ASME 101, 46-52 (1979).

Schultz, A. B., K. Haderspeck, D. Warwick, and D. Portillo, “Use of Lumbar Trunk Muscles in Isometric Performance of Mechanically Complex Standing Tasks,” J. Orth. Res., 1, 77-91 (1983).

Schultz, A. B., K. Haderspeck-Grib, G. Sinkora, and D. N. Warwick, “Quantitative Studies of the Flexion-Relaxation Phenomenon in the Back Muscles,” J. Orth. Res., 3, 189-197 (1985).

Seireg, A. and R. J. Arvikar, “The Prediction of Muscular Load Bearing and Joint Forces in the Lower Extremities,” J. of Biomech., 8, 89-102 (1975).

Shames, I. H., Engineering Mechanics: Statics and Dynamics, 2nd Ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1967.

Shirazi-Adl, A., “Strain Fibers in the Lumbar Disc,” Spine, 14(1), 96-103 (1989).

Silverstein, B. A., L. J. Fine, and T. J. Armstrong, “Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Causes and a Preventive Strategy,” Seminars in Occupational Medicine, 1(3), 213-221 (1986).

Smith, A. DeF., E. M. Deery, and G. L. Hagman, “Herniations of the Nucleus Pulposus: A Study of 100 Cases Treated by Operation,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., 26, 821-833, 1944.

Smith and Mayer, “Quantification of Lumbar Function: Part 1,” Spine, 10(8), 757-764, (1985).

Sonoda, T., “Studies of the Strength for Compression, Tension, and Torsion of the Human Vertebral Column,” J. Kyoto Prefect. Med. Univ., 71, 659-702 (1962).

Stobbe, T., unpublished Ph.D. thesis (Industrial Engineering), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1982.

Swensen, E. E., J. L. Purswell, R. E. Schlegel, and R. L. Stanevich, “Coefficient of Friction and Subjective Assessment of Slippery Work Surfaces,” Human Factors, 34(1), 67-77 (1992).

Tanzer, R. C., “The Carpal Tunnel Syndrome,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., 41A, 626-634 (1959).

Thelen, D. B., A. B. Schultz, and J. A. Ashton-Miller, “Co-contraction of Lumbar Muscles during the Development of Time-Varying Triaxial Moments,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 13, 390-398 (1995).

Thelen, D. G., J. A. Ashton-Miller, and A. B. Schultz, Lumbar Muscle Activities in Rapid Three-dimensional Pulling Tasks,” Spine, 21(5), 605-613 (1996).

Thieme, F. P., Lumbar Breakdown Caused by Erect Posture in Man, unpublished Anthropometric Paper, No. 4, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1950.

Thomson, K. D., “On the Bending Moment Capability of the Pressurized Abdominal Cavity During Human Lifting Activity,” Ergonomics, 31(5), 817-828 (1988).

Tichauer, E. R., “A Pilot Study of the Biomechanics of Lifting in Simulated Industrial Work Situations, ” J. Safety Res., 3(3), 98-115 (1971).

Tichauer, E. R., “Some Aspects of Stress on Forearm and Hand in Industry,” J. Occup. Med., 8, 63-71 (1966).

Tichauer, E. R., Biomechanics Monograph, E. F. Byars, R. Contini, and V. L. Roberts, Eds., Amer. Soc. Mech. Eng., N.Y., 1967, p. 155.

Tracy, M. F. and W. S. H. Munro, “A Biomechanical Manikin for the Evaluation of Loads on the Body,” Clin. Biomech., 6, 105-110 (1991).

Tsuang, Y. H., O. D. Schipplein, H. H. Trafimow, and G. B. J. Andersson, “Influence of Body Segment Dynamics on Loads at the Lumbar Spine during Lifting,” Ergonomics, 35(4), 437-444 (1992).

Tveit, P., K. Daggfeldt, K., S. Hetland, and A. Thorstensson, “Erector Spinae Lever Arm Length Variations with Changes in Spinal Curvature,” Spine, 19(2), 199-204 (1994).

van Dieën, J. H., “Asymmetry of Erector Spinae Muscle Activity in Twisted Postures and Consistency of Muscle Activation Patterns Across Subjects,” Spine, 21(22), 2651-2661 (1996).

van Dieën, J. H., and H. M. Toussaint, “Evaluation of the Probability of Spinal Damage Caused by Sustained Cyclic Compression Loading,” Human Factors, 39(3), 469-480 (1997).

Van Zyulen, E. J., A. Van Velzen, and J. J. Van der Gon, “A Biomechanical Model for Flexion Torques of Human Arm Muscles as a Function of Elbow Angle,” J. Biomech., 21(3), 183-190 (1988).

Waters, T. R., V. Putz-Anderson, A. Garg, and L. J. Fine, “Revised NIOSH Equation for the Design and Evaluation of Manual Lifting Tasks,” Ergonomics, 36(7), 749-776 (1993).

Wells, R. P., D. A. Ranney, and A. Keeler, The Interaction of Muscular and Passive Elastic Forces during Unloaded Finger Movements: A Computer Graphics Model, Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada, 1984.

Wilson, R. N. and S. Wilson, “Tenosynovitis in Industry,” Practitioner, 178, 612-625 (1957).

Winters, J. M. and L. Stark, “Estimated Mechanical Properties of Synergistic Muscles Involved in Movements of a Variety of Human Joints,” J. Biomech., 21(12), 1027-1041 (1988).

Woldstad, J. C. and D. B. Chaffin, “Quantification of the Co-activation of Antagonistic Muscles during Dynamic Elbow Movements,” Proceedings of International Ergonomics Conference, 1991.

Zetterberg, C., G. B. J. Andersson, and A. B. Schultz, “The Activity of Individual Trunk Muscles During Heavy Physical Loading,” Spine, 12(10), 1035-1040 (1987). Adams, M. A., D. S.

Weightman,B., Amis A.A. Finger Joint Force Predictions Related to Design of Joint Replacements,” Journal of Biomedical Engineering, 4, 197-205 (1982).



This is a partial list of references from related studies performed in the University of Michigan’s Center for Ergonomics. More references will be added in the future.

Torso Biomechanical Modeling

Anderson , C., D. Chaffin and G. Herrin. A Study of Lumbosacral Orientation under Varied Static Loads. Spine, 11(5): 456-462, 1986

Chaffin, D.B. and J. A. Ashton-Miller. Biomechanical Aspects of Low Back Pain in the Older Worker. J. Experimental Aging Research 17(3):177-188, 1991.

Chaffin, D.B. Biomechanical Modeling of the Low-Back During Load Lifting. Ergonomics, 31(5):685-697, 1988.

Hughes, R.E. and D.B. Chaffin. The Effect of Strict Muscle Stress Limits on Abdominal Muscle Force Predictions for Combined Torsion and Extension Loadings. J. Biomechanics, 28(5):527-533, 1995.

Hughes, R.E. Empirical evaluation of optimization-based lumbar muscle force prediction models. The University of Michigan, Ph.D. Dissertation, 1991.

Hughes, R.E., D.B. Chaffin, S.A. Lavender and G.B.J. Andersson. Evaluation of Muscle Force Prediction Models of the Lumbar Trunk Using Surface Electromyography. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 12:689-698, 1994.

Hughes, R.E., J.C. Bean and D.B. Chaffin).Evaluating the Effect of Co-contraction in Optimization ModelsTechnical J. Biomechanics, 28(7):875-878, 1995.

Lavender, S., Y. Tsuang, A. Hafezi, G. Andersson, D. Chaffin and R. Hughes. Coactivation of the Trunk Muscles during Asymmetric Loading of the Torso. Human Factors, 34(2):239-247, 1992.

Nussbaum, M.A. and D.B. Chaffin. Evaluation of Artificial Neural Network Modeling to Predict Torso Muscle Activity, Ergonomics, 39(12):1430-1444, 1996.

Nussbaum, M.A. and D.B. Chaffin. Pattern Classification Reveals Intersubject Group Differences in Lumbar Muscle Recruitment during Static Loading Activity. Clinical Biomechanics 12(2):97-106, 1997.

Nussbaum, M.A., B.J. Martin, and D.B. Chaffin. A Neural Network Model for Simulation of Torso Muscle Coordination. J. Biomechanics 30(3):251-258, 1997.

Nussbaum, M.A., Chaffin, D.B., Hughes, R.E, and Moga, P.J., Simulation Analysis of a Comprehensive Torso Biomechanical Model. Proceedings of the XIIIth Inter. Congress on Biomechanics, Perth, Australia, 1991.

Nussbaum, M.A., Chaffin, D.B., Lavender, S.A., and Rechtien, C.J., Geometric Considerations in Optimization-Based Modeling of the Torso Musculature. Proceedings of the XIVth Inter. Congress on Biomechanics, Paris, France, 1993.

Nussbaum, M.A., Lavender, S.A., Chaffin, D.B., and Andersson, G.B.J, Optimization-Based Torso Muscle Force Prediction: Asymmetric Loading in Two Flexed Postures. Proceedings of the North American Conference on Biomechanics, Chicago, 1992.

Nussbaum, M.A., Lavender, S.A., Hughes, R.E., Chaffin, D.B., and Andersson, G.B.J., Predicting Torso Muscle Activity During Asymmetric Loading: A Comparison of Three Optimization Models. Proceedings of the Amer. Soc. of Biomechanics, Tempe, Arizona, 1991.

Raschke, U. and D.B. Chaffin. Support for a Linear Length-Tension Relation of the Torso Extensor Muscles: An Investigation of the Length and Velocity EMG-Force Relationships. J. Biomechanics, 29:12):1597-1604, 1996

Raschke, U. and D.B. Chaffin. Trunk and Hip Muscle Recruitment in Response to External Anterior Lumbosacral Shear and Moment Loads. Clinical Biomechanics 11(3):145-152, 1996.

Raschke, U. Lumbar Muscle Activity Prediction Under Dynamic Sagittal Plane Lifting Conditions: Physiological And Biomechanical Modeling Considerations. The University of Michigan, Ph.D. Dissertation, 1994.

Raschke, U., B.J. Martin and D.B. Chaffin. Distributed Moment Histogram: A Neurophysiology Based Method of Agonist and Antagonist Trunk Muscle Activity Prediction. J. Biomechanics, 29(12):1587-1596, 1996.

Human Strength Modeling

Andres, R.O. and D.B. Chaffin. Validation of a Biodynamic Model of Pushing and Pulling. J. Biomechanics 24(11):1033-1045, 1991.

Chaffin, D.B. and M. Erig. Three-Dimensional Biomechanical Static Strength Prediction Model Sensitivity to Postural and Anthropometric Inaccuracies. IIE Transactions 22(3):215-227, 1991.

Chaffin, D.B., A. Freivalds and S.M. Evans. On the Validity of an Isometric Biomechanical Model of Worker Strengths. IIE Transactions, 19(3):280-288, 1987.

Foust, D.R., D.B. Chaffin, R.G. Snyder, and J.K. Baum. Cervical Range of Motion and Dynamic Response and Strength of Cervical Muscle. SAE Transactions, 4(82), SAE Paper No. 730975, Reprinted November 1974 and 1973.

Garg, A. and D. Chaffin. A Biomechanical Computerized Simulation of Human Strength. AIIE Transactions, 7(1), March 1975.

Read, J. G., Costigan, P. A. and Comrie, W., “Prediction of trunk muscle areas and moment arms by use of anthropometric measures,” Spine, 12, 273-5, (1987).

Human Exertion Software Development and Use

Beck, D. J., “An Evaluation of Inverse Kinematics Models for Posture Prediction,” CAES 1992, Tampere, Finland, (1992).

Beck, D. Chaffin, B. Martin, Y. Liu. A Comparison of Three Computerized Posture Entry Methods for Novice and Expert Users. submitted Ergonomics.

Chaffin, D. Computerized Models for Occupational Biomechanics. Scandinavian J. of Occupational Health and Safety and Biomechanics X, (B. Johnson Ed.), Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL 1986.

Chaffin, D.B. Biomechanical Modeling for Simulation of 3D Static Human Exertions, in Computer Applications in Ergonomics, Occupational Safety and Health, ed. M. Mattila and W. Karwowski, Elsevier Science Publishers, N.Y., 1992.

Chaffin, D.B., R.O. Andres and A. Garg. Volitional Postures during Maximal Push/Pull Exertions in the Sagittal Plane. Human Factors, 25(5):541-550, 1983.

Evans, S. and D. Chaffin. Using Interactive Visual Displays to Present Ergonomics Information in Workspace Design. Trends in Ergonomics/Human Factors III, W. Karwowski (Editor), Elsevier Science Publishers: (North-Holland), 1986.

Evans, S.M. Use of Biomechanical Static Strength Models in Workspace Design. Proceedings for NATO workshop on Human Performance Models in System Design, May 1988, Orlando, FL.

Evans, S.M., D. Chaffin, and J. Foulke. A methodology for integrating ergonomics information in workspace design., Proceedings of the 1984 International Conference on Occupational Ergonomics.

Freivalds, A., D. Chaffin, A. Garg, and K. Lee. A Dynamic Biomechanical Evaluation of Lifting Maximum Acceptable Loads. J. Biomechanics, 17(4):251-262, 1984.

Garg, A. The Development and Validation of a 3-dimensional hand force capability model, Professional Engineer Thesis, University of Michigan, July 1973.

Garg, A., D. Chaffin and A. Freivalds. Biomechanical Stresses from Manual Load Lifting — A Static and Dynamic Evaluation. IIE Transactions, 14(4):272-281, 1982.

Garg, A., D. Chaffin and G. Herrin. Prediction of Metabolic Rates for Manual Materials Handling Jobs. AIHA Journal, 39:661-674 August 1978.

Kumar, S., D.B. Chaffin and Mark Redfern. Isometric and Isokinetic Back and Arm Lifting Strengths: Device and Measurement. J. Biomechanics, 21(1):35-44, 1988.

Langolf, G., D. Chaffin and J. Foulke. An Investigation of Fitts’ Law Over a Wide Range of Movement Amplitudes. Journal of Motor Behavior, 8(2), June 1976.

Lee, K.S., D.B. Chaffin, G.D. Herrin, and A.M. Waikar. Effects of Handle Height on Lower Back Loading in Cart Pushing and Pulling. J. Applied Ergonomics 22(2):117-123, 1991.

Park, K.S. and D.B. Chaffin. Prediction of Load Lifting Limits for Manual Materials Handling. Professional Safety, 20(5), May 1975.

Thompson, D.D. The Perception of Physical Stress as a Measure of Biomechanical Tolerance, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1993.

Thompson, D.D., D.B. Chaffin, R.E. Hughes and O. Evans. The Relationship of Isometric Strength to Peak Dynamic Hand Forces During Submaximal Weight Lifting. Int. J. of Ind. Ergonomics, 9:15-23, 1992.

Woldstad, J.C. and D.B. Chaffin. Dynamic Push and Pull Forces While Using a Manual Material Handling Assist Device. IIE Transactions, 26(3):77-88, 1994.



This is a partial list of references from related studies performed in the University of Michigan’s Center for Ergonomics. More references will be added in the future.

Human Posture and Motion Modeling

Anderson, C. and D. Chaffin. A Biomechanical Evaluation of Five Lifting Techniques. Applied Ergonomics, 17(1):2-8, 1986.

Armstrong, T.J., D.B. Chaffin and J.A. Foulke. A Methodology for Documenting Hand Positions and Forces During Manual Work. Journal of Biomechanics, 12:131-133, 1979.

Beck, D.J. and D.B. Chaffin. An evaluation of inverse kinematics models for posture prediction, CAES, Finland 1992.

Byun, S.N. A Computer Simulation Using A Multivariate Biomechanical Posture Prediction Model For Manual Materials Handling Tasks. The University of Michigan, Ph.D. dissertation, 1991.

Chaffin, D., L. Gallay, C. Woolley, S. Kuciemba. An Evaluation of the Effect of Worker Training on Lifting Postures. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 1:127-136, 1986.

Chaffin, D.B. and G.B. Page. Postural Effects on Biomechanical and Psychophysical Weight-lifting Limits. Ergonomics, 37(4):663-676, 1994.

Garg, A. and G. Herrin. Stoop or Squat: A biomechanical and Metabolic evaluation, AIIE Transactions 293-300, Dec. 1979.

Garg, A., D. Sharma, D. Chaffin and J.M. Schmidler. Biomechanical Stresses as Related to Motion Trajectory of Lifting. Human Factors, 25(5):527-540, 1983.

Gilad, I., M. Redfern, D.B. Chaffin and S.N. Byun. Angular Displacement of Torso During Lifting: A System Comparison of Two Measuring Methods. Human Movement Science, 8:547-569, 1989.

Holbein, M. A. and D. B. Chaffin, “Stability Limits In Extreme Postures: Effects of Load Positioning, Foot Placement, and Strength,” Human Factors, 39(3), 456-468 (1997).

Kerk, C. J., Chaffin, D. B., and Keyserling, W. M., “Stability as a constraint in sagittal plane human force exertion modeling,” Occupational Ergonomics, 1(1), 23-39, (1998).

Kerk, C. J., Chaffin, D. B., Page, G. B., and Hughes, R. E., “A comprehensive biomechanical model using strength, stability, and COF constraints to predict hand force exertion capability under sagittally symmetric static conditions,” IIE Transactions, 26(3), 57-67, (1994).

Kilpatrick, K.E. A Model for the Design of Manual Workstations. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1970.

Liu, Y., X. Zhang, and D. Chaffin. Perception And Visualization of Human Posture Information For Computer Aided Ergonomics Analysis. Ergonomics 40(8):818-833, 1997.

Nussbaum, M.A., X. Zhang., D.B. Chaffin, B.S. Stump and U. Raschke. A Reduced Surface Marker Set for Upper Limb Kinematics: Heuristics and Optimization. Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, Atlanta, GA, 1996.

Park, K. and D. Chaffin. Biomechanical Evaluation of Two Methods of Manual Load Lifting, AIIE Transactions. 6(2), June 1974.

Resnick, M.L. and D.B. Chaffin. Kinematics, Kinetics, and Psychophysical Perceptions in Symmetric and Twisting Pushing and Pulling Tasks Human Factors, 38(1):114-129, 1996.

Wiker, S.F., D.B. Chaffin and G.D. Langolf. Shoulder Posture and Localized Muscle Fatigue and Discomfort. Ergonomics, 32(2):211-237, 1989.

Wiker, S.F., G.D. Langolf and D.B. Chaffin. Arm Posture and Human Movement Capability. Human Factors, 31(4):421-441, 1989.

Zhang, X. and D.B. Chaffin. Task Effects on Three-Dimensional Dynamic Postures during Seated Reaching Movements: An Investigative Scheme and Illustration. Human Factors, 39(4):659-671, 1997.

Zhang, X. and D.B. Chaffin. Task Effects on Three-Dimensional Dynamic Postures during Seated Reaching Movements: An Analysis Method and Illustration. Proceedings of the 40th Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, 1996. (Winner of the Industrial Ergonomics Best Student Paper Award.

Zhang, X., D.B. Chaffin and Q. Shen. Effects of Target Location on Torso Kinematics during Seated Discrete Reaching Movements in Three Dimensions. Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, Atlanta, GA, 1996.

Zhang, X., D.B. Chaffin, and D. Thompson. The Development of Dynamic Simulation Models of Seated Reaching Motions while Driving. to appear in SAE Transactions (presented at SAE Congress, February 1997).

Zhang, X., M.A. Nussbaum, and D.B. Chaffin. Calibrating Instantaneous Helical Axes to Identify the Elbow and Shoulder Joint Centers for Movement Studies. Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, Atlanta, GA, 1996.

Anthropometric Modeling

Armstrong, T.J., D.B. Chaffin and J.A. Foulke. A Method for Measuring Shapes of Anatomical Surfaces. Technical Note-Journal of Biomechanics, 12:397-399, 1979.

Chaffin, D. Fundamentals of Anthropometry and Biomechanical Job Evaluations. In Handbook of Industrial Engineering, edited by G. Salvendy, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1982.

Nussbaum, M.A. and D.B. Chaffin. Development and Evaluation of a Scalable and Deformable Geometric Model of the Human Torso. Clinical Biomechanics 11(1):25-34, 1996.

Nussbaum, M.A., D.B. Chaffin, and C.J. Rechtien. Muscle Lines-of-Action Affect Predicted Forces in Optimization-Based Spine Muscle Modeling. J. Biomechanics 28(4):401-409, 1995.